Resilience Issues Housing,
City Planning & Development

Resilience Discovery Areas
The city of Surat has rapidly grown since the 1960s in terms of population as well as
industry, thus placing subsequent pressure on resources. The city has also expanded with
time (major expansion happened in 2006) and presently covers around 326 sq km. The
population of the city in 2011 was 4,466,826 (Census of India). The actual population may
exceed these figures, especially because of rapid development in the Surat metropolitan
region. Like any other urban city in India, Surat too has its own share of slums which have
developed with the city. The decadal growth of the city population was at its maximum
from 1931 to 1941. For two decades following this period, the city showed a decrease
in the decadal growth. From 1961, the positive trend continued till 1991 before declining
again from 1991 to 2001.
Surat has seen an unprecedented growth in population in the last four decades, recording
one of the highest growth rates in the country and a ten-fold population rise. Surat is now
the seventh largest city in the country. Coupled with this, the spillover of population into
the periphery has also been observed. From time to time jurisdictional limits of SMC have
been extended to include the outgrowth. At present, SMC covers about 326.515 sq km.
There are more than 6.50 lakh people (2001) residing in the immediate periphery of the
The fact that the growth rate of slum population has always been higher than that of the
city indicates that low income immigrants are a dominant factor in city growth. It was also
indicated that affordable housing demand was higher than the supply. This trend seems
to have been reversed since the 1990s with large investments in weaker section housing
and relocation of slums and growth of slums in peripheral areas.
The predicted population of Surat in 2031 is more than 8.0 million. If affordable housing is
not developed with the increasing population, it will affect the city

Emerging Issues
• Unprecedented population growth
• High migration
• Increase in number of slums
• Lack of affordable houses for urban poor
• Unregulated and speculative land and real estate market
• Less availability of land within the corporation area for affordable housing

Gateway for Phase II
How can we involve private real-estate sector to develop affordable housing?
Can we develop subsidies or soft loans to provide housing for all?
Can we have a policy to regulate rental housing?